Now It Can Be Told! - How H.M.S. Exeter Fought Her Last Battle
The full story of H.M.S. Exeter's gallant end, fighting against impossible odds off the coast of Java, reached the Admiralty in December 1945. The cruiser, famous for her part in the glorious battle against the Admiral Graf Spee off the River Plate, was sunk on March 1, 1942.
She had already been damaged in the Battle of the Java Seas two days previously; but, with her escorting destroyers H.M.S. Encounter and U.S.S. Pope, she went down fighting four Japanese heavy cruisers and five destroyers. Her commanding officer, Caption O. L. Gordon, M.V.O., R.N., brought the official story of this action back with him from a prisoner of war camp; he made complete records while a prisoner and kept them from the Japs by hiding them in a tube of shaving cream.
On February 27, 1942, she was at sea as part of an Allied force of five cruisers and nine destroyers. In the afternoon, an enemy force of four cruisers and twelve destroyers was encountered and engaged. Later the enemy was reinforced by several more cruisers. A series of actions developed in which the Exeter was damaged and two Allied destroyers and two cruisers sunk. An enemy cruiser was sunk, one probably sunk and one damaged and three enemy destroyers were seriously damaged.
H.M.S. Exeter returned to Surabaya. There was no time for proper repairs to her damaged boiler-room, and on February 28 she sailed at dark with six of her eight boilers out of action. She was accompanied by H.M.S. Encounter and U.S.S. Pope. At the time it was known that very powerful Japanese naval forces were in or near the Java Sea, but it was hoped to avoid them.
At first H.M.S. Exeter could only limp along at 15 knots, but superb work by engineering staff got two more boilers going and speed was increased at midnight to 23 knots. During the night the Exeter and her little company met an enemy force but managed to elude it. In the morning another enemy force was seen, and the Exeter doubled in her tracks, hoping she had not been seen. But two enemy cruisers began to bear down on the already crippled cruiser and her two destroyers. A little later a large enemy destroyer appeared ahead and almost immediately afterwards two other cruisers and more destroyers came into view.
All Power on the Ship Failed
The engineering staff at the last minute managed to repair one more boiler, and at 26 knots Exeter, with the two destroyers in station either side of her, steamed into action. She had only 20 per cent of her main armament ammunition remaining after the previous battle. The fight began at 09.35. The destroyers tried to ward the enemy off by firing torpedoes and to screen the Exeter by making smoke. One enemy cruiser was hit by torpedoes from the U.S.S. Pope. Several other ships were hit by gunfire from all three Allied vessels. But the end was not far off. As Captain Gordon reported, “A review of the situation at about 11.00 was not encouraging.”
At 11.20 the Exeter received a vital hit in “A” boiler room. Main engines stopped and all power on the ship failed. She was being straddled and hit by the enemy cruisers now, and orders were given to sink her and abandon ship. She sank at about 11.50. Shortly afterwards H.M.S. Encounter was also sunk. U.S.S. Pope remained at hand to the end, and then managed to escape in a rain squall, only to be sunk an hour later following an attack by Japanese bombers.
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